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Gallium

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Michael Gilligan07/05/2022 10:57:03
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20200 forum posts
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This is worth a look : **LINK**

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/this-liquid-metal-could-transform-soft-electronics-180980043/

… and the related paper is a free download

MichaelG.

Thor 🇳🇴07/05/2022 12:51:50
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1632 forum posts
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Thanks for the link, new use to me.

Thor

DiogenesII07/05/2022 13:09:27
563 forum posts
221 photos

Didn't Kawasaki use that for their motorcycle frames?

Michael Gilligan07/05/2022 13:14:25
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20200 forum posts
1053 photos

laugh

V8Eng07/05/2022 14:44:46
1701 forum posts
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Nice when useful materials get discovered wink.

Edited By V8Eng on 07/05/2022 14:49:29

Speedy Builder507/05/2022 15:20:27
2615 forum posts
212 photos

looks great - main producers are China and Ukraine !!

**LINK**

Skip down to :-

GALLIUM PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION

World production of primary gallium from bauxite and zinc was about 95 metric tons in 2008, with the top four producers being China, Germany, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

Martin King 207/05/2022 17:37:43
1005 forum posts
450 photos

An interesting metal!

Must not be allowed any where near an aircraft or anything made of alumnium alloy as it forms a grain boundary solution with zero mechanical strength and a little would go a VERY long way!

Same as mercury also bismuth chucked in a brass or bronze pour totally screws it up!

Funny what you remember from Uni all those years ago!

Cheers, Martin

JA07/05/2022 17:43:48
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1362 forum posts
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Was not Gallium used for doping Germanium in early semiconductors?

Far to busy, or lazy, to look at Wikapedia.

JA

V8Eng07/05/2022 17:49:58
1701 forum posts
1 photos
Posted by JA on 07/05/2022 17:43:48:

Was not Gallium used for doping Germanium in early semiconductors?

Far to busy, or lazy, to look at Wikapedia.

JA

I recall something called Gallium Arsenide in respect of that..

Samsaranda07/05/2022 19:06:27
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1430 forum posts
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If it reacts with aluminium like mercury does then it will be deadly with aircraft. We had an aircraft where a stone jar of mercury was smashed in the freight bay and before long we could see daylight through the holes it made in the aircraft pressure skin. Dave W

Peter Greene 🇨🇦07/05/2022 19:27:45
515 forum posts
6 photos

We were using Gallium slip-rings in satellites 50 years ago.

(Particularly memorable because when we finished doing final tests on one flight model satellite, Charlie the test engineer - under the gun schedule-wise - quickly pulled the power plug assuming power was off. It wasn't. Blew the slip rings to kingdom come. And where are the slip rings? .... buried in the centre of the satellite. A complete strip-down and 6 months delay. Poor Charlie.)

Mark Rand07/05/2022 19:44:56
1275 forum posts
28 photos

^^^^^ Oops!

Jouke van der Veen07/05/2022 21:40:19
175 forum posts
17 photos

At Delft Technical University I had a colleague who studied the interesting ternary phase diagram of the alloy Gallium-Indium-Mercury. He wrote a PhD-thesis about it with a lot of thermodynamical calculations supported by experiments. More than 40 years ago.

I think gallium must be rather poisonous.

Jouke

Georgineer07/05/2022 22:30:31
577 forum posts
32 photos
Posted by V8Eng on 07/05/2022 17:49:58:
Posted by JA on 07/05/2022 17:43:48:

Was not Gallium used for doping Germanium in early semiconductors?

Far to busy, or lazy, to look at Wikapedia.

JA

I recall something called Gallium Arsenide in respect of that..

Without looking it up, I think GaAs is/was used in red LEDs. I know Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP) was.

George

noel shelley08/05/2022 13:14:15
1353 forum posts
21 photos

vague recollection that Gallium arsenide was used in early, 60s 70s photo cells ? Noel.

Michael Gilligan08/05/2022 14:09:14
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20200 forum posts
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Would I be right in assuming that only a few of the contributors to this thread have yet read the paper that was linked in the article ?

MichaelG.

.

Here’s a brief quote from the introduction:

Given these remarkable properties, why is Ga often overlooked aside from its use in semi-conductors (e.g., GaAs, GaN)? This situation can likely be attributed to several factors. Despite being relatively earth abundant, Ga costs ∼$0.25/g (2020 price) since it is produced by extracting Ga oxide as an impurity found in alumina. Plus, there is an overgeneralized historical association of liquid metals (LMs) with toxicity (e.g., the case of mercury). However, probably the most pragmatic explanation as to why Ga is not widely employed commercially is a result of its surface reactivity. A paper published in Science in 1954 stated: “Despite all precautions, this gallium electrode always behaved erratically” (11, p. 390). We now know that this “erratic” behavior is the result of the high reactivity of Ga with its environment. This reactivity most typically manifests itself in the formation of an ∼1–5-nm-thick native oxide that affects the surface chemistry, wetting, and rheology of Ga. Finally, Ga may get overlooked because it can diffuse into the grain boundaries of certain solid metals, such as Al, leading to significant degradation of mechanical properties.

… after which, the paper concentrates upon the exploitation of the mechanical properties of Gallium [which is why I thought it might be of interest here].
.

MichaelG.

Edited By Michael Gilligan on 08/05/2022 14:12:11

Jouke van der Veen08/05/2022 15:55:48
175 forum posts
17 photos

Gallium has very interesting properties, so to read.
And its alloys even more I think. But not so easy to work with in my house, garden and kitchen applications I fear.

JA08/05/2022 16:46:49
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1362 forum posts
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Posted by Michael Gilligan on 08/05/2022 14:09:14:

Would I be right in assuming that only a few of the contributors to this thread have yet read the paper that was linked in the article ?

MichaelG.

.

Yes, in my case.

I had a very quick look at the article and then got on with life.

JA

John Haine08/05/2022 17:50:28
4679 forum posts
273 photos

Gallium Arsenide, an allow of Ga and As, is a III-V semiconductor and widely used in microwave and electro-optic devices. Your mobile phone probably has some in it. Gallium Nitride also a key material in microwave devices and increasingly in power devices for applications such as EVs. A most important element.

Georgineer09/05/2022 20:36:16
577 forum posts
32 photos
Posted by Michael Gilligan on 08/05/2022 14:09:14:

Would I be right in assuming that only a few of the contributors to this thread have yet read the paper that was linked in the article ?

Guilty as charged. Should I resign?

George

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